We present to you in our example today on the encyclopedia website, the Euglena plant, which has many animal characteristics, which makes it closer to animals than it is to plants. Together, here is information about the euglena plant, its parts, the vital processes of the plant, how to reproduce, excrete, move, breathe, and many more about the life cycle of the euglena plant.
Euglena plant information
- Euglena is a single-celled plant that lives in fresh swamps and ponds, and if it gathers in a large number, it turns the color of the water of ponds and swamps to the other color because it contains chloroplasts.
- Euglena plant from the kingdom of protists, family flagellates.
- The name Euglena or Euglena comes back to the Greek language. The word Euglena or Euglena means the pupil of the eye due to its sensitivity to light, and its name in the Arabic language is handirah, which is a diminutive of the word euglena, which means the eye. The word euglena is the literal translation of the word euglena.
Division of flagella
It is the phylum that euglena plants fall under. This phylum is classified into the following:
- Division flagella.
- Adenoids Division.
- Sparkles Division.
Characteristics of the phylum Whipaceae
- All members of the flagellum family are unicellular and therefore carry one nucleus.
- Its movement depends on its flagella, false feet, or both.
- Some reproduce asexually and some reproduce sexually by conjugation of gametes outside the mother.
It is characterized by the flagellum that it possesses, including what has more than one flagellum during the life cycle and you get it in one of the stages of life and during the period of asexual reproduction, which occurs by binary fission, and there are some flagella that reproduce sexually and under which two types fall:
- Phylum flagellates: They have chloroplasts that carry those pigments that they can lose at times.
- Animal flagella: characterized by the absence of chromoplasts, so they depend for food on animals and live in a parasite or free way.
Under which are the orders of flagellates:
- Order Goldfish: Members of this order live either singly or in colonies, bearing brown plastids or yellow plastids, and do not have a mouth or pharynx.
- Order of Eugleniates: Large but thin, containing chloroplasts, some of which do not contain plastids, possessing a cellular pharynx from which the flagella emerge.
- Order of Plants: Small in size, wretched in large colonies or individually, possesses many chloroplasts, does not have a mouth or pharynx, but sometimes has flagella or flagella.
- Ostomycetes: The monkeys of this order are symmetrical laterally and are characterized by the presence of an eye spot, and they have two flagella of different length or one flagellum, pigment carriers with different colors, including yellow pigment carriers, red pigment carriers, or brown pigment carriers.
- The order of flagella rotating: It is distinguished from the members of the other orders by the cellulose covering on its body, it has two flagella located inside two different grooves in the corrugation, one of which undulates in length and the other undulates in width and as a result it rotates around itself, carrying multicolored plastids.
- The most common species of this order is E.virdis, which lives in a solitary and free form in fresh ponds and swamps, where organic matter increases.
- It takes the spindle shape in its composition in a long spindle-shaped tuna and has a pointed end from the back, and the end in front is round in shape.
- Its length is about 0 µm and its width from the center is about 0 µm.
Parts of the Ice Euglena Plant
It is the envelope that covers the body of the cell and is located directly under the plasma membrane. The most important characteristic of it is that:
- Thin texture.
- It consists of a group of thin, strong and flexible bands that are located parallel to each other in a parallel or diagonal way and surround the cell.
- The ice bars are aligned on both ends, and each bar has a groove on one side.
- Live protein materials are the materials that make up ice as it is not the same as a plant cell that is made of dead cellulose.
- It retains its spindle shape, which helps it to move, in addition to being stretchy.
- It is the vesicular structure located in the anterior, rounded part of the animal’s body.
- The depot opens through the pharynx forming an opening known as the cell mouth.
- The plasma membrane is the material lining the depot.
- It has no ice.
- The part consisting of the mouth, pharynx, and depot is used to get rid of the excess water in the cell as it is not used in the cell’s nutrition process.
- The flagellum emerges from the anterior region of the cell and passes through the mouth opening and is filamentous in length.
- The genesis of flagella begins from basal granules located on the wall of the depot.
- The origin of the flagellum is in the depot and then passes through the pharynx to exit the mouth.
- There is another short flagellum that remains in the warehouse and does not come out of it.
The cytoplasm is formed in two areas of the cell:
- Ectoplasm: The extracellular region is dense, transparent, elongated, and does not consist of granules.
- Endoplasmic region: It is a region inside the cell with many granules of a fluid character and with a large number of organelles.
Organelles located in the cytoplasm of chloroplasts: are
- Stripe particles are large and long.
- They are arranged radially in the center and form the shape of a star.
- Contains chlorophyll.
- It contains carotene pigment.
- Each of the plastids consists of a double wall that houses the barynode holder.
- Surrounding this double wall is a round-shaped protein body called a pyrenoid.
- The pyrenodes are the center in which the paramilium is formed, and these complex sugars are similar to starch, although they do not change color if doused with iodine.
- Its location is near the warehouse.
- It is surrounded by a number of secondary vacuoles that combine with each other to form the contractile vacuole.
- Its function in the cell is to expel excess water from the cell body to the reservoir area, which passes through it to the pharynx, then the mouth, and then the outside. This function occurs if the size of the gap is large.
- It is located at the end of the pharynx from the inside, it is close to the depot area and opposite the contractile hiatus.
- It is distinguished by its red-orange color.
- The macula takes the shape of a cup, inside which there is a group of oily droplets, which are colorless as they take on the work of a lens.
- The macular macula is highly sensitive to light and its usefulness appears in that it blocks the light from objects next to the flagellum and is known as the whip’s neighbor.
- Small, swollen body at the root of the flagellum, or one of the roots if it has two flagella, sometimes on the long flagellum.
- Its job is to receive light because it has a high sensitivity to light that enables it to choose the appropriate mode of exposure to light.
- The macula and the parietal flagella whose primary function is to determine the appropriate orientation of the animal’s body so that the largest part of it is exposed to the light so that the cell can make the most of the light during the feeding process.
- It is a funnel-shaped part located at the front end of the cell.
- It takes the tubular shape and is the link between the depot and the cell mouth.
- Euglena plants are unicellular and therefore unicellular.
- The nucleus is large in size and has a round or oval shape.
- The nucleus contains some nucleoli.
- The nucleus contains a group of pigment granules.
- The chromosomal granules are found inside the nucleus in a large amount of nuclear juice.
- The granules are as close to the center of the cell as possible.
movement in euglena
Euglena plants move in two ways:
This method gives it freedom to move, and the one responsible for it is the long whip, as it suffers from a successive set of waves passing through it from the base to the end. The waves passing the whip result in two forces:
- The first: the direction of the longitudinal axis of the animal’s body and thus it pushes it forward.
- The second: perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the animal’s body, so it is responsible for the rotation of the animal around the longitudinal axis.
- The movement of the flagellum is the result of the contractions of the nine surrounding fibrils, which depend for their wave motion on torsion about the axis of the flagellum.
- Fibrils derive their energy from mitochondria.
- Ice is characterized by its high flexibility, which gives the animal the ability to perform a range of contraction and relaxation processes>
- Waves, beginning in the front and ending in the back.
- These movements result in a change in the shape of the animal’s body, as it becomes wide and short. Compared with the whip movement, the euglena movement is slower than the whip movement.
Euglena plants depend for their food in two ways:
- It is the main method of nutrition for the euglena plant, by making the plant its own food through the process of photosynthesis, which produces complex sugars known as paramilium, a substance similar to starch.
- They are stored as granules within the cytoplasm or as crescentic structures surrounding the pyrenoid.
- Plants use this method when there is no sun by absorbing dissolved organic matter in the environment in which they live.
- This is due to the time of the absence of sunlight, the chloroplasts also disappear, but with the return of the light, they form again, but this does not happen in one of the types of Euglena, as it cannot form chloroplasts again.
Respiration process in euglena
- In the process of respiration, plants absorb oxygen gas dissolved in water.
- Gas exchange is carried out by the method of diffusion.
- The process of oxidation occurs by the enzymes circulating in the mitochondria to provide assistance to the occurrence of the process, which results in the release of energy needed to carry out all other vital processes.
- The process of oxidation produces water and carbon dioxide, the main factors in the process of photosynthesis.
- The water and carbon dioxide produced by the oxidation process are excreted from the animal’s body at the time of the disappearance of light.
The process of reproduction in euglena plant by simple longitudinal fission method
Plants reproduce by a process known as (simple linear fission), and the steps in which the process occurs are:
- The union of nuclei and the formation of a single nucleus.
- Meiosis by direct mitosis.
- Mitosis produces two nuclei.
- Split the cell into two halves evenly.
All organelles in the anterior segment initially split, namely:
- ocular macula.
- basal granules.
- The neighbor flagellum and the contractile vacuole disappear during fission but begin to form again in the two new cells.
- The flagella remain in the parent cell and a new flagellum is formed in the new cell.
- The process of fission starts from front to back and results in two identical animals.
The double cleavage method (paraphase)
After the stage of longitudinal fission comes another stage known as (the stage of inactivity and cystic), in which the reproduction process takes place through the method of double division, and in this method the following occurs:
- The euglena stopped moving permanently.
- lash loss;
- It changes shape to become spherical.
- It enters itself inside a thick mucous sac that is secreted by the bodies responsible for secreting mucus in the euglena. This stage is known (the cyst stage).
- The production of more than one new individual and the number may reach a new individual through simple longitudinal binary fission.
- The new individuals are inside the mucous sac, so each individual secretes a sheath around it.
- The growth of the flagellum and the rupture of the mucous sheaths because they had absorbed the water, swollen and dissolved.
It is known as the process of plasmonic regulation, during which wastes are expelled according to their type in the following order:
- Carbon dioxide: by the diffusion process carried out by the surface of the body.
- Water: The process of regulating the amount of water takes place through the contractile vacuole, where the secondary contractile vacuoles absorb water and expel it to the main contractile vacuole, which in turn expels water out when it reaches its specified volume, and the process of excretion is through the cell mouth.
- Ammonia and nitrogenous substances: are expelled from the body by the process of diffusion.
Is euglena an animal or a plant?
The euglena plant has a number of plant and animal traits, and by comparing the number of plant and animal traits, we find that the animal is more than the plant traits, so it can be considered an animal and not a plant.
- shrinking gap.
- Simple binary fission.
- Throwing feeding.
- The body is running whip.
- Stored foodstuffs (paramilium).
- central bodies.
- It does not contain the cellulose wall that covers the plasma membrane.
- Autotrophy (photosynthesis).